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  • Writer's pictureJessica Morley

2024 Weeknotes #4


So another week has been and gone on the other side of the Atlantic. A fun week with two highlights: first an excellent introduction to the world of bot-making via Poe from an exceptional Yale undergrad; and second my first ever experience of a college basketball game - complete with band and cheerleaders. I felt like I was on the set of High School Musical and it was amazing! (Yale won if you were wondering).

Now on with the weeknotes

Things I worked on

  • Justifying the investment in AI in healthcare. A colleague and I have, for some time, been working on a paper seeking to analyze whether the current level of investment in the development of AI for healthcare is justified based on its ability to meet clearly identifiable system needs. We are now approaching the finish line of the paper and getting ready to submit. It makes a reasonably interesting argument that investment is justified based on the potential of AI to maybe save and improve lives, but currently the lack of strategic direction over the entire field is minimizing the likelihood that this endeavor will be successful. Thus, if investment is to remain justified and hype and hope are to become reality, a refining of the scope of investment might be warranted.

  • Literature Alerts. I have several (ok it's closer to 50 but don't tell) literature alerts that are set up to run on the 1st of every month to 'alert' me to any new literature published in the preceding four weeks on the topics that I am interested in. This month, I ended up with 34 new articles to read (see things I read). I honestly love literature alerts day every month, it always results in so many new ideas and thoughts.

  • Literature search on all things trust. I am currently trying to develop a theory of 21st century digital trust for multi-agent systems (e.g., healthcare). I suspect this will require a lot of deep thinking and will, therefore, take some time to come to fruition. However, as a starting point I began a very broad literature search using the following queries (and more) in Google Scholar (I'll repeat in Scopus etc. but will need to refine the queries):

    • Trust in healthcare systems

    • Mediational role of trust in healthcare system

    • Public trust healthcare system

    • Trust crisis in healthcare

    • Trust assessment e-health systems

    • Healthcare experts trust in medicine

    • Smart health systems trust management scheme

    • Health care systems trust matters

    • Uncertainty and trust

    • Patient trust

    • Physician trust

    • Social capital and trust

    • Multidimensional trust

    • Components of trust digital distributed systems

    • Determinants of trust

    • Accountability in distributed systems

    • Trust in distributed digital systems

    • Components of trust

    • Components of trustworthiness

  • Poster for Yale AI in Medicine Symposium. On Friday it was the Yale AI in Medicine symposium and my abstract, from my thesis, was accepted as a poster session so I had to spend some time putting together a poster. I was pretty pleased with how it turned out in the end - especially because it's purple!

Things I did

  • Published our first paper from the BMJ's commission on the future of the NHS entitled: "The NHS founding principles are still appropriate today and provide a strong foundation for the future" and arguing that"The vision of a comprehensive health service is as relevant today as in the 1940s, but new and different societal challenges (including developments in technology) require a rethink on how to deliver the NHS as it faces a national health and care emergency". The paper makes several recommendations, including the recommendation that the NHS commit to a principle of values-based innovation, and those in the box below. The paper was picked up and made the front page of The Guardian which was pretty exciting.

  • Presented to and chatted with the NHS Digital Clinical Safety Officer's coffee and chat meeting.

  • Had an excellent meeting planning a potential policy workshop on the implementation of the AI Act for healthcare .

  • Reviewed the results from the App Store Audit project we are currently working on (see previous weeknotes)

  • Completed paper reviews for: Artificial Intelligence Review; Big Data and Society; Minds and Machines; and BMC Bioethics

Things I thought about

  • Second order Trust in distributed systems. As I said above I am currently trying to develop a theory of 21st century digital trust for highly distributed systems involving multiple interacting artificial and human agents. I believe that part of the reason we see trust declining in so many digitally-enabled industries and services is because whereas once the components of trust could be found in a single 'agent' now the components are distributed both in a 'geographical' sense (i.e., in one place and in another place) and in a 'levels' sense (i.e., one component arises at one level of distributed network and another at another). It's a very fun thought experiment, but I think has some fairly significant implications for policy development and the regulation of AI in particular.

  • Sensitivity and specificity in prompt engineering. I have seen sensitivity and specificity, the need to find a balance between the two, and what the necessary trade-offs are, discussed endlessly in the literature in the context of training and validating individual machine learning algorithms for different purposes and the ideal level of 'accuracy' (e.g., a diagnostic algorithm vs. a triaging or screening algorithm). I have yet to see a comprehensive discussion tackling the same issues in relation to prompt engineering. I think it is essential that this oversight be rectified as soon as possible.

(A selection of) Things I read

All these were drawn from my monthly literature alerts as described above

  • Akbarialiabad, Hossein, and Nelson K. Sewankambo. “Centres of Excellence in AI for Global Health Equity — a Strategic Vision for LMICs.” Nature 625, no. 7995 (January 18, 2024): 450–450.

  • Arbelaez Ossa, Laura, Giorgia Lorenzini, Stephen R. Milford, David Shaw, Bernice S. Elger, and Michael Rost. “Integrating Ethics in AI Development: A Qualitative Study.” BMC Medical Ethics 25, no. 1 (January 23, 2024): 10.

  • Aslan, Ayse, Freda Mold, Harm Van Marwijk, and Jo Armes. “What Are the Determinants of Older People Adopting Communicative E-Health Services: A Meta-Ethnography.” BMC Health Services Research 24, no. 1 (January 11, 2024): 60.

  • Bas, Guillem, Claudette Salinas, Roberto Tinoco, and Jaime Sevilla. “The EU AI Act: A Pioneering Effort to Regulate Frontier AI?” Inteligencia Artificial 27, no. 73 (January 5, 2024): 55–64.

  • Butt, Furqan A., Mohammad Fawzy, Bassel H. Al Wattar, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Khalid S. Khan, and Yacoub Khalaf. “The Randomized Clinical Trial Trustworthiness Crisis.” Middle East Fertility Society Journal 29, no. 1 (January 2, 2024): 4.

  • Chen, Meng, Dongbao Qian, Yixuan Wang, Junyan An, Ke Meng, Shuai Xu, Sheng Liu, Meiyan Sun, Miao Li, and Chunying Pang. “Systematic Review of Machine Learning Applied to the Secondary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke.” Journal of Medical Systems 48, no. 1 (January 2, 2024): 8.

  • Cochran, Gerald, Jennifer L. Brown, and T. John Winhusen. “Letter to the Editor Responding to ‘Paths Forward for Clinicians Amidst the Rise of Unregulated Clinical Decision Support Software: Our Perspective on NarxCare.’” Journal of General Internal Medicine, January 18, 2024.

  • Divya, K., and R. Kannadasan. “A Systematic Review and Applications of How AI Evolved in Healthcare.” Optical and Quantum Electronics 56, no. 3 (March 2024): 301.

  • Drage, Eleanor, Kerry McInerney, and Jude Browne. “Engineers on Responsibility: Feminist Approaches to Who’s Responsible for Ethical AI.” Ethics and Information Technology 26, no. 1 (March 2024): 4.

  • Espinoza, Juan C., Shruti Sehgal, Jimmy Phuong, Neil Bahroos, Justin Starren, Adam Wilcox, and Daniella Meeker. “Development of a Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Informatics Maturity Model.” Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 7, no. 1 (2023): e266.

  • Freitas, Ana Teresa. “Data-Driven Approaches in Healthcare: Challenges and Emerging Trends.” In Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence and the Law, edited by Henrique Sousa Antunes, Pedro Miguel Freitas, Arlindo L. Oliveira, Clara Martins Pereira, Elsa Vaz De Sequeira, and Luís Barreto Xavier, 58:65–80. Law, Governance and Technology Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2024.

  • Golden, Grace, Christina Popescu, Sonia Israel, Kelly Perlman, Caitrin Armstrong, Robert Fratila, Myriam Tanguay-Sela, and David Benrimoh. “Applying Artificial Intelligence to Clinical Decision Support in Mental Health: What Have We Learned?” Health Policy and Technology, January 2024, 100844.

  • Göndöcs, Dóra, and Viktor Dörfler. “AI in Medical Diagnosis: AI Prediction & Human Judgment.” Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 149 (March 2024): 102769.

  • Goos, Maarten, and Maria Savona. “The Governance of Artificial Intelligence: Harnessing Opportunities and Mitigating Challenges.” Research Policy 53, no. 3 (April 2024): 104928.

  • Halme, Erika, Marianna Jantunen, Ville Vakkuri, Kai-Kristian Kemell, and Pekka Abrahamsson. “Making Ethics Practical: User Stories as a Way of Implementing Ethical Consideration in Software Engineering.” Information and Software Technology 167 (March 2024): 107379.

  • Hani, Anoud Bani, Haleama Alsabbah, Munir Majdalawieh, and Nawel Bessadet. “Addressing the Public Health Misinformation Challenge with Real-Time Data Fusion.” In 2023 3rd Intelligent Cybersecurity Conference (ICSC), 1–8. San Antonio, TX, USA: IEEE, 2023.

  • Hoeyer, Klaus, Sara Green, Andrea Martani, Alexandra Middleton, and Clémence Pinel. “Health in Data Space: Formative and Experiential Dimensions of Cross-Border Health Data Sharing.” Big Data & Society 11, no. 1 (March 2024): 20539517231224258.

  • Iserson, Kenneth V. “Informed Consent for Artificial Intelligence in Emergency Medicine: A Practical Guide.” The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 76 (February 2024): 225–30.

  • Jones, H, A Bandyopadhyay, N Kennedy, S Brophy, J Evans, Ma Bellis, B Rowe, C McNerney, and S Moore. “Investigating Methods of Sharing Data between Police, Health, Education, and Social Services: Semi-Structured Interviews with Police Service Areas in Wales.” The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, January 4, 2024, 0032258X231220864.

  • Knopp, Michelle I, Eric J Warm, Danielle Weber, Matthew Kelleher, Benjamin Kinnear, Daniel J Schumacher, Sally A Santen, Eneida Mendonça, and Laurah Turner. “AI-Enabled Medical Education: Threads of Change, Promising Futures, and Risky Realities Across Four Potential Future Worlds.” JMIR Medical Education 9 (December 25, 2023): e50373.

  • Lacity, Mary C, Sebastian W Schuetz, Le Kuai, and Zachary R Steelman. “IT’s a Matter of Trust: Literature Reviews and Analyses of Human Trust in Information Technology.” Journal of Information Technology, January 20, 2024, 02683962231226397.

  • Li, Xu-Hui, Jian-Peng Liao, Mu-Kun Chen, Kuang Gao, Yong-Bo Wang, Si-Yu Yan, Qiao Huang, et al. “The Application of Computer Technology to Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation: A Scoping Review.” Journal of Medical Systems 48, no. 1 (December 27, 2023): 6.

  • Lin, Athena, and Justin L. Hess. “Distinguishing Between Ethical and Normative Behaviors in Engineering: A Delphi Study.” In 2023 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 1–5. College Station, TX, USA: IEEE, 2023.

  • Mohseni-Takalloo, Sahar, Hadis Mohseni, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Masoud Mirzaei, and Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh. “The Effect of Data Balancing Approaches on the Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome Using Non-Invasive Parameters Based on Random Forest.” BMC Bioinformatics 25, no. 1 (January 11, 2024): 18.

  • Mustika, Ni Wayan Eka, I Made Wirya Darma, I Gede Agus Kurniawan, and Nar Yan Thapa. “Restorative Justice Settles Health Disputes Between Patients and Hospitals from an Inclusive Justice Perspective.” Jurnal IUS Kajian Hukum Dan Keadilan 11, no. 3 (December 26, 2023): 423–36.

  • Nazeer Khan, Salma Banu, Ayse Aysin Bilgin, Deborah Richards, and Paul Formosa. “Educating Students about the Ethical Principles Underlying the Interpretation of Infographics.” Teaching Statistics, January 3, 2024, test.12362.

  • Pierson, Emma. “Accuracy and Equity in Clinical Risk Prediction.” New England Journal of Medicine 390, no. 2 (January 11, 2024): 100–102.

  • Ribeiro, Beatriz A., and Maria Braz Da Silva. “Machine Ethics and the Architecture of Virtue.” In Advanced Research in Technologies, Information, Innovation and Sustainability, edited by Teresa Guarda, Filipe Portela, and Jose Maria Diaz-Nafria, 1936:384–401. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland, 2024.

  • Salgado-Criado, Jesús, Carlos Mataix-Aldeanueva, Santiago Nardini, Cecilia López-Pablos, Mara Balestrini, and César Said Rosales-Torres. “How Should We Govern Digital Innovation? A Venture Capital Perspective.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 200 (March 2024): 123198.

  • Saunders, Karen, Mohamed Sakel, and Cary L Cooper. “Is It Time for a Paradigmatic Shift in Relation to Healthcare in the UK? A Reflection.” BMJ Leader 7, no. 4 (December 2023): 251–54.

  • Voss, Erica A, Clair Blacketer, Sebastiaan Van Sandijk, Maxim Moinat, Michael Kallfelz, Michel Van Speybroeck, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Martijn J Schuemie, and Peter R Rijnbeek. “European Health Data & Evidence Network—Learnings from Building out a Standardized International Health Data Network.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 31, no. 1 (December 22, 2023): 209–19.

  • Wickberg, Adam, Susanna Lidström, Amanda Lagerkvist, Tirza Meyer, Nina Wormbs, Johan Gärdebo, Sverker Sörlin, and Sabine Höhler. “The Mediated Planet: Datafication and the Environmental SDGs.” Environmental Science & Policy 153 (March 2024): 103673.

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1 Comment

Pawan Randev
Pawan Randev
Feb 06

Thanks Jess, Is it possible to put the poster into Publisher as I can't make out the text, even with Vaifocals?

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